Concomitant human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme neuroborreliosis
Tick-transmitted zoonoses such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are endemic in several European countries, including Slovenia. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent species of hard ticks in Slovenia, is the principal vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and TBE virus. Information on clinically manifested co-infections with tick-transmitted pathogens is incomplete. Findings from the USA indicate that the frequency of simultaneous diseases caused by infection with more than one tick-borne pathogen is low and varies among geographic regions.